The place on a grafted plant where the rootstock and the scion meet. Typically the bud union can be found near the base of the plant and should be just above ground level.
The place on a grafted plant where the rootstock and the scion meet. Typically the bud union can be found near the base of the plant and should be just above ground level.
The part of a seedling stem that is between the soil line and the cotyledon leaves.
The part of the stem on a seedling that falls between the cotyledon leaves and the first set of true leaves.
A shoot or stalk that grows from the crown (base) of the plant. Normally is used in reference to grass. OR An implement used to till or turn the soil in a garden bed.
Growing a vegetable plant upside down, normally from a hanging pot or five gallon (19 L.) bucket.
Following the methods of Japanese gardens, such as formally pruned trees, garden paths, and pleasant vistas.
A method of permaculture gardening that makes the best of tight space and limited water supply to produce the most food crops. The name comes from the "keyhole" shape of the layout.
A region that is defined by the similarities in first and last frost dates across wide geographic areas. Zones are used to help gardeners predict the likelihood that a plant will survive in the area that they live.
A trace mineral that helps a plant produce essential enzymes and with cell division.
The vascular system of the plant that transports water through the plant.
A method of landscaping that aims to use spare amounts of water while still being please in the eye.
The chemical that causes yellow coloring. Almost all plants contain xanthophyll but typically the xanthophyll is covered up by more intense chlorophyll.
A common type of mulch that is made of wood that has been chopped up into small pieces.
Releasing toxic gases from the leaves in order to prevent nearby plant growth.
The material that results from mica being heated. The mica expands and becomes lightweight and will retain water and air, making it an excellent soil additive.
A specialized, swollen root that the plant uses to store additional energy.
A specialized underground stem where a plant stores extra energy in the form of starch.
The real leaves that develop on the plant as it is growing. The first true leaves are typically the second pair of leaves that develop on a seedling.
The top layer of soil that normally contains the most organic material and nutrients.
The act of removing seedlings that are growing too close to their neighboring seedlings in order to ensure that the remaining plants can grow without competition.
This is a plant that has four sets of chromosomes. This genetic anomaly often results in plants that are larger or are mutated in some way.
A pseudo stem that grows on climbing plants and allows them to attach themselves to the objects that they climb.
A plant that is susceptible to cold weather and will die if the temperatures drop below freezing.
The main root of a plant around which all the other roots will grow. They are typically the longest root on the plant.
An astringent substance that is found in some plants. Most commonly associated with wine grapes.
A mineral that is added to the soil in order to lower the pH of the soil. It also helps with growing more disease resistant plants.
Planting fast-growing vegetable plants a designated time apart so that you can enjoy a continuous harvest through the season.
A method by which a plant is held up off the ground, normally by means of a long stick or stake.
A seed like reproductive cell that is produced by non-flowering, asexual plants in order to reproduce.
A type of moss that grows in bogs and, after it dies and starts to decompose, becomes peat moss.
Soil whose acidity level is so high that it actually takes on a sour smell.
A piece of a plant that is taken from new, green, non-woody growth and is used to propagate the plant.
Fertilizer that releases its nutrients slowly over a period of time in order to avoid burning the plants it is used on.
A slice of bark and sapwood that has a bud on it. It is then grafted onto another plant.
The layer of wood just under the bark that the sap of the tree is transported through.
A stem that grows off a plant and produces a new plant at its tip. It is a common way for ground covers to spread.
A chemical, either man-made or natural, that is applied to a cutting in order to encourage root growth.
Cutting back the root system. It is typically done to either combat a disease, such as root rot, or to stunt the plant, such as with bonsais.
A disorder of the root system that occurs when a plants is allowed to grow too long in a pot that is too small for it. The roots wrap around in on themselves and become tangled.
May refer to either a condition where a stone fruit tree produces small, misshapen fruit or where head forming cole crops (e.g. broccoli, cauliflower, etc) form a head before the plant is large enough to support it.
When a seed requires exposure to light before it is able to germinate.
When a plant grows low and in a rounded fasion. The shape of the plant will resemble a "mound" of soil.
Material added to the compost pile that adds nitrogen to the composting mix and feeds the microbes and bacteria that are needed for composting.
Material added to the compost pile that adds carbon to the composting mix and feeds the microbes and bacteria that are needed for composting.
The living layer of the tree where food and water are synthesized. The layer is sometimes also called the inner bark as it rests just below the rough, protective outer bark.
The vascular system of a tree. This layer and the cells in this layer transport water and nutrients to the different parts of the tree.
A plant that does not shed its leaves at any point in time during the year.
Plants that are able to use their leaves or stems to retain water which can be used later during times of drought. These types of plants are typically characterized by "fat" juicy leaves and stems.
A succulent plant that typically has spines and need little water to survive.
Gardening inside a structure, typically a home. This term frequently refers to caring for houseplants, but can also refer to doing more traditional styles of gardening, such as vegetable gardening, inside a building.
Also known as a potager garden. These gardens are grown near the kitchen and provide easy access to fruits, vegetables, and herbs that are grown there.
Also known as a kitchen garden. This style of garden aims to combine both form with function so that a garden located near the house can provide easy access to homegrown fruits, vegetables, herbs, and cut flowers while still looking pleasing to the eye.
A form of landscape design that recreates an idealized, "natural" style. Typically, English-style gardens feature lakes, rolling hills, stands of trees, and naturally shaped flower beds. The garden style is considered to be the contrasting counter-point to formal gardens.
Using drought-tolerant and low water plants to create a landscape that needs very little water. This type of garden design is commonly used in areas that have little rainfall as a way to reduce stress on the local ecosystem.
A part of a flower. These are the outer covering of the immature flower that protect the flower bud before it opens.
A part of a flower. Part of the female part of the flower and is an unpollinated, immature seed. Once pollinated, the ovule will develop into seeds.
A part of a flower. Part of the female flower where the ovules (immature seeds) are kept. The ovary commonly develops into the fruit of the plant once the ovules are fertilized.
A part of a flower. The tube through which pollen travels to reach the ovary.
A part of a flower. The sticky part of the female part of the flower that will hold onto the pollen when it is deposited in the flower.
A part of a flower. The stalk found in the stamen of a flower which has the anther (pollen) at the top.
A part of a flower. The part of the flower that holds the pollen and it part of a male flower structure.
A part of a flower. The female part of a flower made up of the ovary, style, and stigma.
A substance that is secreted by trees, particularly coniferous trees. This substance can be sticky but normally hardens. It is not tree sap, but rather a protective reaction to damage or insects.
A small, round mass that grows on the roots of certain plants. This mass can be natural to the plant, in which case it will be used for storing nutrients or water. Or it can be caused by pests and disease, which can harm the plant.
The act of covering up a part of a plant to keep the sun from shining on that part of the plant. This method is most often used with certain vegetables, like celery or cauliflower, in order to make a more tender and less bitter flavored crop. Typically, blanching will also cause the plant to be paler or even white.
Mulch that is made from natural materials, such as chipped or shredded wood or pine needles.
Plants that are technically perennials, but that cannot withstand frost. These plants are typically grown as annuals but can be kept as perennials in frost-free areas or if given protection from frost.
A buildup of soil that created a small dividing hill. These are often created artificially to add to the visual interest of a landscape, but they can also occur naturally.
A section of a branch or stem that has the potential to grow a new branch. This section of wood is commonly used for grafting trees.
Methods of growing plants, particularly food crops, that are self sustainable and even helps to improve the local environment and ecosystem.
A garden that incorporates Mediterranean aspects into its design. Mediterranean aspects can include tropical-looking foliage, mosaics, ocean-inspired accents, and terra cotta.
Indoor plants that need less than 4 hours of light to grow properly.
Indoor plants that need 4-5 hours of direct light or 5 or more hours of indirect light to grow properly.
Indoor plants that need 5 or more hours of direct light to grow properly.
Plants that need 4-6 hours of sunlight in order to grow properly.
Plants that need 4-6 hours of sunlight in order to grow properly.
Plants that need less than 4 hours of sunlight, direct or filtered, in order to grow properly.
Plants that need at least 6 hours of direct sunlight in order to grow properly.
Growing plants without soil and using nutrient rich water to support the needs of the plants.
Using organic methods to kill or repel harmful pests from a plant.
The liquid found inside a tree that circulates nutrients and water. The tree sap flows through the phloem layer of the tree in the xylem cells.
Gardening in a city environment. This term typically refers to gardening indoors, on a balcony or in a allotment garden.
A pruning technique for fast growing trees where trees have had all branches removed and have been cut back to the trunk in order to produce dense, new growth. This technique is commonly used either for conytroling the size of fast growing trees to to encourage heavy blooming.
Brown spots that appear on the leaves of a plant, normally due to a disease or a nutrient deficiency.
Spreading seed over the top of an already established lawn. Typically, this is done to improve a sparse lawn without the work of redoing the entire lawn.
Seeds from a plant that has been open pollinated and that the resulting plant will both look like the parents and produce seeds that will grow true to the variety.
A small plantlet that grows from the base of a parent plant. The pup can be seperated from the parent plant to grow a new plant.
An insect that goes from flower to flower on a plant or several plants spreading pollen from one flower to another and, in doing so, fertilizes the flower which causes a fruit or seedpod to form.
A natural stone, normally rounded, that is used as decoration in gardens.
A method of growing tomatoes in bottomless pots or "rings" placed over gravel pits.
A fleshy underground stem of a plant that is commonly mistaken for a root. Roots and shoots grow off the rhizome.
The amount of moisture in the air at any temperature, compared to how much moisture it could hold at that temperature.
Calcium oxide, which has been produced by burning a calcium carbonate such as limestone. It is highly volatile.
Cutting away branches on a plant, normally a tree or shrub, in order to achieve an end goal. This goal can be things like shaping a plant, encouraging new growth or increasing fruit production.
The act of separating tightly growing seedlings so that they can be transferred to individual containers.
Soil that is mixed so that it would be suitable for using in containers. It is formulated to be compact resistant, drain well but still retain moisture.
Compost that has additives such as peat moss, vermiculite and perlite added in order to make it suitable for using in containers.
One of the major nutrients that plays a role in plant growth and development.
The act of pollen being deposited on the pistil of a plant. This fertilizes the plant and produces seeds.
Plants that are harmful to humans and other animals when consumed. A plant may not be poisonous to one animal but poisonous to another.
A small division of a plant that can be planted and expected to spread. Most commonly used when talking about grass or ground covers.
The process in a plant that converts energy stored in the plant into energy that can be used by the plant. The process releases carbon dioxide and water as a byproduct.
The female part of the flower that contains the ovule and, if fertilized, produces the seeds.
The practice of sniping off the ends of stems in order to produce a bushier and more compact plant.
The process by which plants convert solar energy into food for the plant.
When a plant is lacking phosphorous. This is normally characterized by yellow or blue and purple leaves, stunted growth and poor growth.
The tissue system in a plant that allows it to transport nutrients to different parts of the plant.
The measured acidity of soil. A low pH means the soil is more acid, while a high pH means that the soil is more alkaline.
A substance that kills any organism that may harm a plant, such as insects, mold, fungus and other plants.
An insect or animal that causes a nuisance or damage to your plants or garden in general.
A type of volcanic glass that is lightweight and "fluffy". It is added to potting soil to help with drainage and softness of the soil.
A plant that grows for many years. Some perennials grow constantly, while others go through cycles of growth and dormancy.
A type of moss that is found in bogs and is harvested when it is partially decomposed. It is added to compost and soil to make it more friable or "crumbly".
A plant that gets it nutrients taking them from another plant, normally by attaching itself to the host plant.
Using materials commonly found in your house to make a fertilizer.
Leaves that have multiple sections that fan out and look much like a human hand.
A method of gardening where all materials used in the garden come from natural sources and were not chemically produced by man.
Materials that come from natural sources and are not man made. It can also mean materials that are made of things that are living or were once living.
A plant that is pollinated by natural means, such as bees and other insects, animals or the wind.
The acronym for Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium, which is the normal makeup of most fertilizers. The numbers on the fertilizer will indicate in this order the amount of each. E.g. 10-10-10 would have equal amount of each.
A point on a stem that has the potential to grow into another stem, flowers or into leaves.
An important nutrient needed by a plant in order to grow and develop correctly.
To design a planting pattern that mimics a random natural pattern, or it can refer to a non native plant that now grows wild in an area.
An organic or inorganic material that is spread over the ground to help reduce unwanted plant growth and to retain moisture in the ground.
The practice of planting vegetables and other food crops by the phases of the moon. It is thought to increase the health and productivity of the plants.
Growing a single species of plant over a wide area. Typically, farms are referred to as being monocultures.
A trace element that is needed by plants in order to support healthy growth.
Spraying a mist or a fine spread of liquid onto a plant, normally with a spray bottle.
A nitrogen fertilizer that is produced from the waste at the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. It is considered an organic fertilizer.
A small area within a yard that is a zone higher or lower than the surrounding area. Typically this happens when an object around the area modifies or captures an environmental element, such as a wall that retains heat or a bush that deflects the wind.
Minerals and nutrients found in the soil that plants need in very small quantities.
A plant that is grown to help enrich the soil. It serves the same purpose as adding composted manure to the soil.
An animal waste product that is composted and used as a natural fertilizer for plants.
A trace mineral in the soil that helps plants with their growth and seed production.
A trace element in soil that helps with the development of the plant, especially blossoms and fruit, especially in nightshade plants, like tomatoes.
Considered to be one of the best kinds of soil, it contains a near equal mix of clay, silt, sand and organic material.
Soil that has a high concentration of limestone or lime, and because of this, typically has a high pH.
A fungicide and miticide made up of calcium and sulfur. It is highly corrosive and should be handled carefully.
Abnormally long growth on a plant that causes it to be floppy. Frequently caused by lack of sufficient sunlight.
A method of plant propagation where a branch or stem is encourages to grow roots while still attached to the parent plant. The term refers to the fact that frequently the branch is "layered" under dirt.
A structure, typically made of thin strips of wood, that helps shade plants from direct sunlight.
A yellowing of the leaves caused by the plant getting too little iron.
A trace metal that is needed for proper plant growth. Iron deficiencies in plants can result in yellowing of the leaves.
A plant that produces fruit continuously. This term is typically used when talking about varieties of tomatoes.
A flower that is missing one of the following - sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils.
The use of water and nutrients to grow plants without needing soil.
A variety of a plant that has been created through the cross breeding of two other varieties of that same species of plant.
The organic part of the soil. It typically occurs when plants and animals decompose.
A sweet, clear substance produced by aphids and some other pests. Many plant owners will notice the honeydew before they notice the pest infestation. This substance will also attract ants.
A plant that is non-woody and dies back to the ground in cold weather or during dormancy.
An open pollinated plant, normally a flower, vegetable or fruit, that has been cultivated for more than 50 years.
Temporarily planting a plant in order to protect its roots from the elements until it can be planted in a more permanent location.
The center or "heart" of the trunk of the tree. This wood is more dense than the outer wood and is dead. It is typically denser than the outer wood.
A method of pruning plants in order to make them stronger and bushier. In trees, this can mean severely cutting back branches. In other plants, this can mean cutting off the top third of the plant.
The ability of a plant to survive the local weather conditions year round.
A mature cutting that is rigid and woody that is taken from a parent tree in order to propagate the tree.
A hard layer of soil that exists below a layer of topsoil. It is difficult to dig and typically, roots have a hard time growing through it and water does not penetrate through it.
The measure of how well a plant can survive in different climates and temperatures.
The process for introducing a plant, typically a seedling, to temperatures that are different from that which it is used to Normally refers to moving a plant from indoors to a cooler outdoors.
A plant that needs to be protected from frost in order to survive year round.
The period of time during the year in which a crop, flower or plant can survive and actively grow.
A low and densely growing plant that is used to cover normally large areas of ground.
A plant that is grown purely to enrich or fertilize the soil in which it is grown in. Nitrogen fixing plants, like peas and clover, are examples of this.
The process of attaching one related plant tissue to another plant tissue. Normally, it is used to connect a superior fruiting tissue to a superior rooting tissue.
The name for what happens when a tree loses a complete ring of bark around the circumference of its trunk. This condition is typically fatal to a tree.
The process of a seed causes itself to produce growth and become a plant.
Methods to keep frost from building up on plants in the garden.
The buildup of ice crystals on objects. It is the frozen version of dew and can be deadly to certain plants.
A leaf whose shape has multiple nodes. Typically seen on palms or ferns.
Causing a plant to grow or bloom sooner than they would in nature. This method is typically applied to bulbs.
A technique where fertilizer is supplied to them through the leaves the plant. In other words, fertilizer is sprayed on the leaves so that the plant can absorb it.
A type of flowering where the plant produces a cluster of flowers in a tightly contained space.
Plants at a nursery are typically sold in flats. It is a set of multiple plants sold as a group.
A mixture of nutrients and minerals that is added to soil to improve the quality of the soil in order to promote plant growth.
On tuberous root, it is the point at which either a root or stem can grow from the tuber.
Releasing plant toxic chemicals through the roots so as to prevent nearby plant growth.
A plant that stays green all year round by not losing it leaves. Evergreens may go into a state of semi dormancy, but never one of full dormancy.
The name of the process by which water goes from a liquid form to a gas form. This process can be sped up by heat or air flow.
The process of pruning a plant, normally a fruit tree, so that it grows flat against a wall or fence. Normally done to save space and to make the best use of stored heat.
The process of water washing away soil from the areas the water flows over. It can be caused by rainfall or a the flow of a body of water.
A plant that grows by attaching itself to something, typically another plant, and receives its nourishment from the air and water. Some varieties of orchids and air plants are epiphytes.
A type of fruit that has a fleshy outside and an hard inner shell or stone. Many drupes are eaten. Some examples include almonds, blackberries and cherries.
A type of irrigation that delivers water directly to the roots of plants through the use of small tubes that "drip" the water out to the base of the plant.
A fertilizer supplement that is made by drying and powdering blood. It is used to add nitrogen to soil and is consider acceptable for organic gardening.
A flower that has mutated to have extra petals. This type of flowering usually results in a flower that looks fuller and rounder.
A method of tilling where the soil in one row is turned and then moved to a second row. Typically during this process, organic material is added.
A period where a plant stops all growth and reproduction. Frequently, the plant will lose leaves and look dead, when in fact it is simply "sleeping".
A section of a larger plant that has been separated in order to create a genetic copy of the parent. This is a common propagation method.
Splitting a parent plant into two or more smaller plants for propagation purposes.
An external force that causes a plant to lose vigor and health. Typically caused by bacteria or a virus.
Removing extra flower buds on a plant to support the health and growth of other flower buds on the plant.
A plant that has a normal number of chromosomes, one from the male and one from the female parent.
Plants that have male and female systems on different plants. For these plants, you will need both a male and female plant to produce fruit and seeds.
A pointed tool for making holes in the ground for planting seeds, bulbs, or young plants.
A plant that only produces blossom on active growth branches and stop growing when the plant had set fruit.
Damage to a plant or tree caused by dehydrating of leaves. This frequently happens most often on evergreen plants during the winter where cold winds virtually freeze dry the leaves.
A plant that loses and regrows its leaves naturally during the course of the year.
Pinching off used or dead blooms to prevent them from setting seed and encourage further blooming.
When plants, normally seedlings, rot due to over watering or improper watering practices.
A method where the area, normally a greenhouse, is sprayed down with water in order to increase humidity and lower the air temperature.
Removing part of a plant in order to correct the size of the plant or to encourage new growth and blooming.
A piece of a plant's leaf, stem or root which can be used to propagate the plant.
The point just above or below the soil where a plant's roots and top join.
A crop, usually grass based, which is planted in fallow ground to control weeds, prevent erosion and add humus to the soil later.
The first set of leaves that a seedling produces. They contain stored energy that feeds the plant until it develops a full root system and true leaves.
A thickened stem like structure which grows underground and produces roots, leaves and flowers during the growing season.
A trace metal found in the soil that can be beneficial in small amounts, but toxic in large amounts. It can also be used to keep snails away from plants.
Using containers such as flower pots, buckets and tubs to grow plants rather than planting the plants directly into the ground.
Taking organic matter and letting it decompose in order to make a soil amendment.
A fertilizer that contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Planting two different kinds of plants close to each other with the idea that each plant will benefit the other.
An unheated, usually small enclosure that is covered with glass or plastic, used to overwinter semi-hardy plants or to harden off young plants.
An organic soil amendment that is used to raise the pH of the soil.
A pigment in plants that causes them to look green. When present, it usually masks all other pigments.
A mineral used to amend soil so as to provided a needed nutrient to the plants growing there.
Heat supplied to the underside of a container in which a plant is growing.
A trace mineral that helps with the absorption of other nutrients and with germination.
A combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime used mainly to control infestations of fungus.
The art of growing dwarf plants in containers through careful, manual cultivation.
A soil amendment used to increase the phosphorus content of the soil.
Vegetables which quickly go to flower rather than producing the food crop. Usually caused by late planting and too warm temperatures.
A plant that only lives two years and frequently produces flowers and seed its second year.
A fine clay that was used to line ornamental ponds before plastic was widely available.
Plants which have had all of the soil removed from their roots so that they may be sold or shipped.
A naturally-occurring bacterial disease of insects that is often used in insecticides.
A collection of trees and shrubs that are grown for scientific or educational purposes.
A substance sprayed on evergreen leaves to help prevent water loss during the winter.
A plant that germinates, grows, flowers, produces seeds in a single growing season before dying.
Things that you add to the soil in order to improve it for plant growth.
Excreting a substance that prevents other plants from growing in a plants vicinity.
A method of plant propagation done by cutting into the bark of a plant in order to cause new roots to form.
A soil with a pH lower than 7.0 is an acid soil (a soil pH higher than 7.0 is alkaline). Basically, pH is a measure of the amount of lime (calcium) contained in your soil.
A mulch that is made up of dried pea vines. It has a higher nitrogen content than other mulches and is commonly used in organic gardening because of this.
Fertilizer that has equal parts of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. The 10-10-10 numbers mean that per pound (0.5 kg.) of fertilizer, there would be 10% of each nutrient.
Fertilizer that has equal parts of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. The 20-20-20 numbers mean that per pound (0.5 kg.) of fertilizer, there would be 20% of each nutrient.
Any vegetable from the nightshade family of plants. These include tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, potatoes, and tomatillos.
Plants whose first leaves (cotyledons) first appear below the soil line during the seed germination process.
Plants whose first leaves (cotyledons) first appear above the soil line during the seed germination process.